Design and Construction of Layout of Dairy Farm Production Area


New member
Do you know how to design and construction of layout of dairy farm production area?
There is an article about this issue officially, now let me share with you.
Dairy Cow

Dairy Cow

1. Milking hall and dairy room
The milking hall that feeding farms need to use 2 to 3 times a day is the most important part of the whole milk production line. The rotary milking table, which needs a lot of labor, has been gradually eliminated. Now a fixed milking hall is more and more popular, and the automatic intelligent milking hall has been put into use. The simplest milking hall is juxtaposed, which is suitable for a worker responsible for 80 cows production line. Dairy cows can have three heads in one unit or six heads in one unit, entering and leaving the milking hall is one cow at a time, and the speed is adjusted manually. There is a concentrate bin on the roof of the milking hall, and the concentrate in it falls into the feeding trough between cows under the action of gravity. Milking efficiency can reach 30-40 cows per hour.
The fish-bone milking hall is more common at present. Milkers stand in tunnels to adjust to avoid bending. The cows entered the milking hall in batches, arranged on both sides of the tunnel, and stood at an angle with the tunnel. Fish-bone milking is suitable for cattle farms of all sizes. If the field is designed as a 1:1 mode according to needs (e.g. 10 milking units and 10 preparatory units),one worker can easily deal with 100 cows in 2 hours. For 300 or more cows, 2-3 workers can be responsible. The concentrate bin on the roof of the milking hall stores concentrate, and each row has a trough.
Some milking halls have now canceled feeding. The automatic shedding device of the milking cup group is available on the market so that milkers can operate more milkers at the same time without over milking. In any milking hall, the working procedures are cows entering, feeding, cleaning and washing their breasts, testing the milk initially squeezed, putting and removing the milking cups, nipping medicated baths or spraying, transporting milk and driving the cows out of the milking hall. In some dairy farms, milkmen have to bathe their nipples before milking, especially in cases of outbreaks of mastitis.
The dairy room should be close to the milking hall, mainly including vacuum pumps, milk pumps, water heaters, and flushing equipment, in addition to the configuration of bulk milk cans. The capacity of milk cans is very important and should be sufficient to accommodate the maximum possible amount of milk. In addition to the emergency delivery of dairy cows, usually 30-35L for each cow. Milking halls and dairy rooms must be kept strictly clean. Ranches should be regularly inspected by relevant agencies. Engines and refrigeration equipment should be placed in the mechanical room.

2. Breeding sheds
Dairy farms are usually divided into grass-covered playgrounds and open fence sections.
The grass-covered playground is comfortable and clean. In winter, a large amount of hay (about 2.5-3.0t per cow) is laid. However, the use of hay reduces the volume of cow excretion and urine. The design of the open fence is exquisite, which has been accepted by most cattle venues in China and can greatly improve labor efficiency. The main requirement is that space should be large enough to improve comfort. Generally, the total length of the open fence is 2.2 m and the width is 1.2 m. It is suitable for lying on the surface. It can be made of metal or wood. For high-yielding dairy cows, there should be more room of cow pens for them to move.
Now there are many new types of open fence. The open-style fence has a high front and low back, there is a certain degree of slope, generally for the cement floor, above the mattress of sand or hay. The head crossbar should be added so that when the cattle stand, the body moves backward, and the cattle feces are not defecated on the open fence. The width of the aisle is 2.4 m and the aisle adjacent to the feeding trough is wider than the general aisle so that when the cattle are feeding, there is enough space behind them for other dairy cows to pass freely. Open fence and dung passage can be arranged in a building or can be used as a part of the special building for free access to the fence. In all cases, good ventilation should be maintained in the cowshed. A skylight can also be opened on the cowshed for ventilation. The feeding trough of the grass-covered playground and the open fence can be either outside or inside the shed. The feeding trough in the shed is beneficial for feeding, but it increases the feeding cost.

3. Feed silage area
The feedstuff silage equipment of cattle farm includes a tower silage pit and a simple silage pit made of brick and stone. Simple silage pit is easy to construct, easy to use and low in cost. The commonly used plywood pit is cement floor, and its walls are made of soil, wood strips or cement. The safety of the silage pit is very important. Its walls can not only bear the weight of silage itself but also bear the rolling action of motor vehicles in the process of silage compaction. For open silage pits, 900 mm indicator rods should be placed at the top of the wall; for capped silage towers, enough space should be left for motor vehicles (5.5 m). All wastewater should be concentrated in a closed tank and cleaned up in time. In the self-feeding silage system, the storage height of silage should not be higher than 2 m, and its capacity should be able to meet the whole winter consumption, which is 12-l5 m³ for ahead. If other feeds need to be stored, they must be kept clean and dry, and free of parasites.

This is just a part of this article, this article has a detailed introduction on how to design and construction of Layout of Dairy Farm Production Area, the original text comes from If you are interested, you can find out.
In addition, if you have different views or better ideas, you are welcome to come together to exchange learning.